Teaching & Learning
The International School of Port of Spain is dedicated to developing passionate learners, from our youngest learners in Pre-Kindergarten 3 through to our seniors. To prepare our students to act with confidence and integrity as caring global citizens, we need to educate them in traditional subject areas, while helping them to develop vital skill and values that go beyond subject confines and age levels.
- Support each student’s capacity to develop individual talents, abilities, skills and attitudes
- Encourage all individuals to be part of a community of learners where parents are involved in all aspects of their child’s education and where peers are encouraged to support, and learn from each other
- Develop confident individuals with a love of learning who will be able to lead an active, healthy, productive and successful life
- Recognize that each student develops in different ways at different rates and that each individual has a unique learning style
- Determine the existing knowledge that a child brings to new experiences and build on that knowledge by enabling them to make connections to incremental pieces of new information
- Encourage students to look at the ‘big ideas’, that drive our units of inquiry so that they can reflect on the connections between life in school, life at home and life in the world
- Provide experiences that support and stimulate a child’s learning through active hands-on activities and that explore the environment in an effort to make sense of their world
- Provide opportunities to practice problem solving, make decisions and take action
- Instill in students a feeling of ‘Internationalism’: an understanding of what it means to be part of an international community where they are open to other people’s perspectives and are empathetic to other people’s situations
- Encourage students to be independent learners and understand what it means to take responsibility for their own learning
- Enable students to apply their learning appropriately to new situations
- Encourage students to seek out information, to interpret what they discover and to explain those discoveries to others
- Use a broad range and balance of teaching and assessment styles and methods to meet the varied needs of our learners
The curriculum at the International School of Port of Spain is based on a school-wide system of standards and benchmarks. Standards and benchmarks specify what students should know and be able to do in a particular grade. They indicate the knowledge and skills that must be taught and assessed throughout a school’s program.
The feedback that students and parents receive is specific to ISPS standards and benchmarks as they are the foundation of our teaching and learning. Teachers collect evidence of student learning and this evidence is used to determine whether the student has fully mastered the skill or needs additional time and assistance. Evidence of student learning is outlined below in the ISPS Philosophy of Assessment. (See ISPS Philosophy of Assessment)
- The Primary Years Programme
- PYP Curriculum Model
- Distinctive Features of the PYP
- Developing the International Student
- The Disciplines
- Action Cycle
Our school curriculum challenges and encourages our students to become active and compassionate lifelong learners. The diversity of the student body provides a richness that allows students to become more globally aware. Art, music, foreign language, computer technology, guidance, and physical education provide a balance for well-rounded learners. Our program is equivalent to that of quality, private, independent schools around the world. As an international school, we also focus on preparing students to be caring and responsible global citizens.
The Primary Years Programme (PYP) offers a significant and challenging experience that spans across and beyond traditional subject boundaries. It focuses on the heart as well as the mind, and addresses social, physical, emotional and cultural needs along with academic needs. At the heart of the PYP is a commitment to structured inquiry as a vehicle for learning. It provides an internationally designed model for the learner to construct meaning and incorporates guidelines on student learning styles, teaching methodologies, and assessment strategies.
The curriculum framework is an expression and an extension of three interrelated questions:
- What do we want to learn?
- How best will we learn?
- How will we know what we have learned?
The new organizing structure of the PYP focuses on the principle of agency which is fostered by encouraging student interests, questions, discoveries and theories. Agency allows students to have voice, choice and ownership to impact their learning in the planning process, and take meaningful and intentional action. Everyone connected to the school community becomes an agent in the teaching and learning process to create a culture that honors full participation of the learning community.
The cornerstone of the Primary Years Programme (PYP) is the Learner Profile. These are the ten most important attributes of an international person. At ISPS, we want the students to transfer and practice each profile in their daily lives. Additionally, all teachers and students model these attributes and intertwine the learning and foster ways to develop these characteristics in all areas, using a variety of strategies. While we strive to develop the international student as part of implementing the PYP, this does not mean that we have to study other nationalities and cultures to develop the profile. Wherever we are in the world, and whatever we are learning, the characteristics of the learner profile define us as the international person according to the International Baccalaureate Organization Primary Years Programme.
The Learner Profile
IB learners strive to be:
- Risk Takers
The Six Organizing Themes
- Who we are
- Where we are in place and time
- How we express ourselves
- How the world works
- How we organize ourselves
- How we share the planet
The Five Essential Elements
At the center of the PYP curriculum are five essential elements: concepts, skills, knowledge, attitudes, and action. The programme helps students acquire a holistic understanding of the six main organizing themes through the interrelatedness of these essential elements. The PYP identifies a body of knowledge for all students in all cultures in six subject areas:
The PYP has constructed a set of eight concepts that answer the question: what do we want the students to learn? Questions in each unit of inquiry can fit into one of these concepts:
- Form What is it like?
- Function How does it work?
- Causation Why is it like it is?
- Change How is it changing?
- Connection How is it connected to other things?
- Perspective What are the points of view?
- Responsibility What is our responsibility?
- Reflection How do we know?
What do we want the students to be able to do is addressed in the element of learning skills within the units of inquiry. The construction of meaning and understanding is complemented by the students acquiring and applying a range of skills known as Approaches to Learning Skills:
- Social skills
- Thinking skills
- Research skills
- Communication skills
- Self-management skills
What do we want the children to know? In answering this question, the program of inquiry is organized into six theme-driven units under seven disciplines. The following provides the framework for the content of the program:
- Social studies
- Science and Technology
- Personal, Social and Physical education
Language skills are essential for communication and self-expression, and the skills of reading, writing, listening, speaking and viewing are learned across and throughout the subject areas. They are recognized as interdependent parts of a whole and are developed in an integrated manner, both with each other and the rest of the curriculum. Lucy Calkins is a balanced literacy program that is used at all grade levels.
Students in all grades are exposed to Spanish which enables them to communicate and interact through language. The functional use of grammar is our short-term goal, which is achieved through a hands-on approach. Accelerative Integrated Methodology (AIM) uses gestures, drama, and music to develop fluency.
The Four Stands of Language:
- Listening and Speaking
- Media and Technology
The social studies curriculum allows students to develop an understanding of their past, present, and future, their environment and their society. Social studies encourages curiosity and develops an understanding of the changing world. Students engage in real-world activities through transdisciplinary themes. They develop skills in decision making, in problem solving, and in critical thinking, which are necessary in their daily lives. This course of study helps to prepare students to become confident, knowledgeable and respectful individuals. The knowledge component of social studies is arranged into five strands:
- Time Continuity and Change
- Connections and Conflict
- People, Places and Environment
- Culture, Society and Environment
- Production, Distribution, and Consumption
Students develop the skills necessary for problem solving with computation being one of the critical tools. Creative thinking skills are also developed as students learn to choose and apply appropriate rules, facts and procedures. Math is also applied to other areas of the curriculum (language arts, music, physical education etc.). Students are given the opportunity to discuss their thinking, explain their reasoning in math journals and ask questions. Moreover, students are encouraged to demonstrate their thinking by sharing their public records. Accelerated Math Program is also used in grades 2-5 to hone mathematical thinking skills and conceptual understanding. The mathematics expectations are organized into four strands:
- Number and Operations
- Operations and Algebraic Thinking
- Measurement and Data
At the core of the science curriculum is inquiry. In the PYP there is a commitment to a concept-driven curriculum as a means of supporting the inquiry. In the process of inquiry students are led to observe, recognize and define problems, investigate, report and communicate their findings, analyze and draw conclusions from their results. Science is integrated with other subject areas. The knowledge component of science is arranged into four disciplines:
- Earth and Space Sciences
- Life Sciences
- Physical Sciences
- Engineering, Technology and Application of Science
The science program is based on Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). These standards are based on three dimensions:
- Crosscutting Concepts: describe concepts linking the different domains of science
- Disciplinary Core Ideas: describe core ideas in the science disciplines
- Science Engineering Practices: describe behaviors scientists and engineers engage in
Technology instruction is guided by the ISTE Student Standards (International Society for Technology in Education) 2016. Many of the world's most innovative schools use these standards to guide them in 21st Century learning. The seven categories of standards are Empowered Learner, Global Collaborator, Digital Citizen, Innovative Designer, Knowledge Constructor, Creative Communicator, and Computational Thinker.
Each elementary classroom is equipped with an interactive whiteboard and devices, iPads for PK-3 and Chromebooks for grades 3-5. Teachers have laptops and document cameras also at their disposal.
The Elementary School uses IXL online systems to keep track of student practice in reading, math, and language arts skills. Teachers use SeeSaw online for student portfolios and to keep parents informed. Unified is the repository for gr. K-5 students' online work and uploaded creations.
Elementary School students have the opportunity to learn about, and experience working with, a variety of robots including Sphero, Lego WeDo and Kibo The Robot. They learn to control the robots to perform a variety of functions as well as solve challenges.
Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 1 use Kibo The Robot. They learn to write programs that they enter into Kibo’s memory using barcoded commands and the robot’s barcode reader. Students are able to use conditional commands such as "Repeat" and "If Then". They write programs to solve a problem or complete specific tasks..
Grade 2 to Grade 3 work with Lego WeDo2.0, building a variety of devices and writing programs to control them. They also have an opportunity to work with the Sphero robots, learning to remotely control them as they navigate through a track, learning and understanding the skills and perspective needed to effectively control it.
Grade 4 and Grade 5 students use their programming and problem solving skills to program the Sphero Robot to complete set tasks. In addition, students design and build battle bots with the Sphero which they battle against each other.
Elementary School students have the opportunity to learn about computer programming through their experience with robotics. However, Grades 1 to 5 experiences are more in-depth using Scratchjr and LOGO. Grades 1 and 2 learn to write programs with Command Blocks in a number of Coding Games and Scratchjr. Grades 3 to 5 write lines of code in the LOGO Programming Language to create programs that draw images using coding practices and skills that include loops and procedures. Code.org is used for all programs.
The art program involves the student in learning about two and three-dimensional art forms. The lessons, appropriate for students’ intellectual and physical maturity, expose the children to the basic elements of design as well as providing opportunities for creativity, original thinking and expression. Good craftsmanship, doing one’s best and completing the task at hand is always encouraged.
Exposure to art history and appreciation add to students’ knowledge, expands their vision and increases their understanding of aesthetics across national and cultural boundaries.
The Art Club students meet once a week to demonstrate their creativity. Additionally, this group discusses a project that involves the wider-community. For example, the students have created paintings for a local hospital and delivered them to the children’s ward of that institution. Children’s work is exhibited around the school.
Music in the Elementary School is an important part of the total educational experience of the child. Children participate in singing, listening, improvising, moving to music and laying pitched and unpitched instruments. As children actively participate in these musical activities, they develop their innate creativity, as well as discover the world of music that surrounds them. Students establish music reading skills that enable them to sing in unison and in two parts, along with playing instrumental melodies and playing accompaniments. Students have the opportunity to participate in the Elementary School choir or to play the keyboard, guitar, strings and steel pan.
School Instruments: School instruments are available for students who attend the strings music program. Students are responsible for the maintenance of their instrument. In the event the instrument is damaged, lost or requires repair, parents are expected to cover the cost of repair or replacement. All instruments are to be returned to the School during the holiday periods (Easter/Summer).
Personal, Social and Physical Education
The goal of the Physical Education Program is to allow children to view themselves as fit, skilful and joyful participants who are not limited to their own cultural activities. The Physical Education program is designed to be holistic in that it enables students to develop physical, intellectual, social and emotional abilities. The approach is also sequential. Objectives have been placed on a continuum in three areas: skill, knowledge, and affective behavior. Each of these domains, skills are identified for each grade level and grouped into three areas: physical fitness and conditioning, sports and games and rhythmic activities from different countries. Students work in small and large group settings. They participate in movement activities using equipment or apparatus to develop a range of skills, both transdisciplinary and specific to P. E.
Personal and Social Education (PSHE)
PSE is included in the curriculum to help students learn how to manage and communicate their feelings; make informed choices; be aware of social norms and different perspectives; build healthy relationships; develop strategies to resolve conflicts; develop an appreciation for cultural diversity and show concern for others and the environment.
Homework is an assignment that is to be completed outside of class. It includes day-to-day tasks as well as long-range assignments. Homework should be meaningful to enrich, stimulate, and/or strengthen those concepts learned during projects and daily interactions with each discipline. The amount and type of homework assigned will be affected by differences in individual students, subject content, grade level and teaching philosophies. Teachers are expected to assign homework.
This recommended amount of time for homework is as follows:
- Kindergarten: 20 minutes
- Grades 1 – 3: 20 – 40 minutes
- Grades 4 – 5: 45 – 60 minutes
Elementary School homework assignments include assigned reading, review of class work, notes and written homework assignments at least twice a week and on weekends.
Each student is required to have a homework notebook starting in Grade 1. Homework notebooks are given out at school. Parents are expected to view daily homework assignments.
- Middle School Academic Program
- MYP Curriculum Model
- Distinctive Features of the MYP
- Instructional/ Grading Features
The curricula at ISPS describes what students need to know and are able to do. A variety of standards and benchmarks has been adopted to build curriculum frameworks in the different subject areas.
Because the standards adopted are not content specific, it has provided us with the flexibility to build our curriculum consistent with the school’s mission and the needs of our various programs such as the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme (PYP), Middle Years Programme (MYP), and Advanced Placement Programme (AP).
To learn more about our Middle & High School Curriculum, click here.
The Middle School offers integrated programs through which teachers bring curricula together by teaching concepts, skills and content around specific Areas of Interactions. An integrated curriculum is a way for students to connect beyond subject area focus. It is a teaching method that combines disciplines, focuses on topics of natural interest to adolescents, and addresses the different learning styles of students.
ISPS’s middle school curriculum delivers years 1-3 of the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme and provides a foundation for student success in the final two years of the program in high school. In grades 6-8, students develop an understanding of their own approaches to learning, and they familiarize themselves with the other areas of the IB MYP including subject specific objectives and assessment practices, and an appreciation of service learning. These formative experiences deepen their understanding of the concepts of the IB programme and prepare students to be internationally minded members of our community.
Our students will be enrolled in eight subject areas, as well as Homeroom, Guidance and Library.
Students are expected to produce their own, original, quality work at all times. Students will be required to stay in during lunch or after school to redo work which was of a poor quality, regardless of extracurricular participation. When a student is found to have plagiarized the work of another, he/she will be subject to the disciplinary consequences outlined in the Parent-Student Handbook.
Students with questions about assignments should approach the teacher to set up a convenient meeting time during a break or lunch, as well as before or after school.
Extra credit is not a part of the Middle Years Programme. Many, if not most, summative assignments contain a degree of choice or open-endedness which encourage students to be innovative and creative thinkers, going beyond the basic recitation of required knowledge and skills. Thus, doing “extra,” or going above and beyond minimal expectations on every assignment becomes an expectation if one is to attempt to score in the upper bands of the assessment rubrics. With formative work, students are encouraged to revise and improve their work as applicable, based upon the constructive feedback of peers and/or teachers, thus improving their overall mark, not by doing “extra” but by being reflective and revising the work they have already completed.
PowerSchool Parent Portal
Academic performance grades, Approaches to Learning, and attendance are reported officially four times throughout the year. Interim Progress Reports are issued at the end of each of the first three quarters, and a Final Grade Report is issued at the end of the school year. Notification of when reports will be issued will be sent via email.
Student’s progress is available at any time by using Powerschool’s real time gradebook. Parents should be accessing real-time grades throughout the quarter on Powerschool once the teacher has put the grades into the Powerschool gradebook.
Students take the Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) two times per year. MAP is a standardized, group-administered assessment of reading, mathematics and language skills. The MAP assessment is based on the internationally endorsed reading and mathematical literacy frameworks. The MAP assessments give the teacher valuable information on how to differentiate instruction based on each child’s needs. MAP scores will be sent home with comparison normative data (US and International Schools) after each testing administration (beginning of the year, mid-year, and end of the year).
Students will also participate in the Education Records Bureau (ERB) Writing Assessment Programme (WrAP) test in the spring, and comparison normative data will also be provided to parents. The school counselor holds parent information sessions to assist in the interpretation and understanding of data provided to parents.
- In High School we...
- Advanced Placement
- Curriculum Support
- Courses in High School
- Developing A Class Schedule
- Dropping Courses & Incompletes
- External Examinations
- Semestral Examinations
- Grade Point Average (GPA)
- Graduation Requirements
- Required Credits
- Make-Up Work
- Parent/ Teacher Conferences
- SAT & ACT
- Student Progress
- High School Co-Curricular Activities
- Transfer Students
- Are a vibrant learning community dedicated to developing passionate learners who strive for excellence.
- We encourage resilience, innovation and collaboration.
- Ask students to act with confidence and integrity as they pursue their unique potential.
- Inspire thinkers and doers to shape a better world.
- In order to reach these goals, we:
- Are staffed by a core faculty who are specialists in their field and use a multitude of teaching methods to accommodate students’ varied learning styles, and provide appropriate levels of academic challenge.
- Offer opportunities for aesthetic experience and creative expression through activities such as drama, music and art, athletics and student publications.
- Are committed to an atmosphere of pluralism and acceptance.
- Provide a strong sense of community by maintaining and improving channels of communication among staff, students and parents by giving opportunities for all to be actively involved in school life.
- Take advantage of the unique location of the school by providing opportunities for strengthening links with the host country, its culture and the Caribbean.
- Help students cope with the concerns of adolescence and young adulthood through the provision of appropriate guidance and counselling services.
- Assist students in planning their future through career, aptitude and placement testing, as well as appropriate reference sources and college and career counselling services.
- Develop a sense of compassion and caring for others through the provision of numerous service opportunities within our community as well as in the wider society of Trinidad and Tobago.
The Advanced Placement (AP) Program is an intensive program of university level courses and examinations. Nearly 3000 colleges and universities worldwide use the grades from these courses and/or examinations as a means of determining the academic qualifications of students. The AP examination grade is sent to the colleges of the student’s choice, which may then grant college/university credit, advanced placement, or both, depending on the institution’s policies. Students who enroll in the AP courses are expected to be committed to the AP exams in May and will be given an extra grade point on their transcript for each AP course completed.
The ISPS seeks to provide its students with the best faculty and materials available to ensure a quality education. Staff are trained in student assessment, specific learning needs and English as a Second Language. Counselling and Guidance programs provide a student with career counselling. College counselling is available through the Guidance Counsellor and other faculty members.
Students are provided with books and materials for each subject area as part of their tuition and fees. As the school programs continue to develop, this curriculum will be constantly reviewed, and more or different resources will be provided, as assessment deems necessary. In addition to classroom books, the school has a library/media center. Encyclopedias and other information resources are available online.
Classes at all levels are also equipped with the necessary equipment for learning. High School students have three science labs equipped with appropriate equipment for the current science courses. The school has high-speed Wi-Fi access throughout the campus for students to use laptops and tablets in their learning. The school can also offer distance learning opportunities, when appropriate, to expand our current academic offerings.
The following courses reflect a typical pattern for students to follow as they complete graduation requirements. Options exist to follow other course work to meet student needs, once approved by the Guidance Counsellor and the High School Principal.
9th & 10th Grade
|Language and Literature:||English 9|
|Math:||Integrated Math 9|
|Science:||Integrated Science 9|
|Individuals and Societies:||Geography|
|Language Acquisition:||Spanish Phases 1-5 (Emergent and Capable)|
|Physical and Health Education||PE 9|
|Arts||Art or Music|
|Math:||Math 10 or Algebra II or Pre-Calculus|
|Science:||Biology, Chemistry, or Physics|
|Individuals in Society||World History|
|Language:||Spanish Phases 1-5 (Emergent and Capable)|
|Physical Education||PE 10|
|Arts||Art or Music|
11th & 12th Grade
In keeping with our vision and mission of academic excellence and reaching their unique potential, students will select from the following options:
|Math||Algebra II, Business Math, College Algebra or Pre-Calculus, AP Calculus (AB, BC), or Statistics.|
|Sciences||Chemistry, AP Biology, AP Chemistry, AP Physics 1 and 2, Physics, or Environmental Science.|
|Social Science||AP World History, AP Art History, AP Comparative Government and Politics, AP Human Geography, Business Studies, AP Psychology, AP Macroeconomics, AP Microeconomics, AP Capstone, Seminar, AP Capstone Research or Contemporary Issues.|
|English||Expository Writing: Language & Literature, English 12, AP English Language and Composition, AP English Literature and Composition, English11, Creative Writing, College Writing,|
|Languages||Spanish Phases 1-5 (Emergent and Capable), Pre-AP Spanish and AP Spanish|
The schedule for grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 includes a minimum of seven subjects. AP Biology, AP Calculus, AP Language and AP Art count as two courses (two credits) and meet nine periods per week. AP Chemistry counts as 1.5 courses (1.5 credits) and meets seven periods per week.
ISPS encourages students to challenge themselves with Advanced Placement courses, yet we counsel students carefully as to the prerequisite knowledge, time and independent effort that these high-level courses require.
High School courses may be dropped within the first two weeks of school with no penalty. Only under special circumstances will students be allowed to drop courses after the first two weeks. Requests must be from the student or parent, in writing, with justification and the approval of the teacher and Counsellor. Under no circumstances will a student be allowed to remove a course grade from a transcript once he/she has received a final grade in the course.
There are a number of external examinations that are done by students in the high school in preparation for university/college. These include the SAT: Reasoning Test, SAT: Subject Tests, the ACT, PSAT/NMSQT and the AP (Advanced Placement) examinations. It should be noted that these examinations require payment by parents since they are not necessarily common for all students and they are not included in the regular tuition charges. Detailed information on these testing programs is available from the High School Counsellor.
Exams are scheduled in the High School at the end of each semester. Exams provide students with the experience of preparing and sitting for a comprehensive exam, while providing teachers with feedback on each student’s learning during the semester. . In MYP courses, exams will be shown as a summative task. In non-MYP courses, semester exams count for a maximum of 20% of the overall grade in the course.
To receive a diploma from the International School of Port of Spain, a student must earn a minimum of 26 credits. Some of these will be required and some will be elective credits. It is important to note that this is a minimum requirement and that we encourage students to enrol in subjects of their interest beyond the minimum requirement. The Principal and Counsellor will assist students and their parents in planning students’ educational programs
|Social Studies||3 credits|
|Science||3 credits (Including Biological and Physical Sciences)|
|Foreign Language||3 credits (in the same language)|
|Total Core Academic||16|
|Physical Education/Health||1.5 credits|
|Electives/ Other Academic||8.5|
|Total Credits for Graduation||26 credits|
At the high school level homework is an integral part of the school’s program. The purpose of giving homework is to:
- Provide for reinforcement and practice of concepts introduced in class.
- Prepare students for upcoming work in class.
- Provide opportunities for independent research.
- Give opportunities for revision and review.
Students in the High School can expect homework in every subject; approximately two hours of work each evening. AP courses require substantial amounts of homework, and require homework on weekends and during vacation periods in order to maintain the pace of the course. Homework is required and may count toward the course grade in non-MYP courses. Students are encouraged to maintain a homework diary in order to track both short and long-term assignments.
Parent/Teacher Conferences are formally scheduled twice a year, once after the first quarter and again during the third quarter. However, a conference can, and should, take place at any time the need arises. Teachers welcome discussions with parents throughout the school year. Please contact the office of the Assistant to the Principals for an appointment.
As part of the college application process, students are usually required to take the SAT: Reasoning Test or the ACT (and sometimes the SAT: Subject Tests). Students are strongly encouraged to take these exams at least once in their junior year and again in the first semester of their senior year. Students can actually take these exams at any time during high school, and as many times as they like.
For exam dates and registration information please see the High School Counsellor, or log on to the website www.collegeboard.com for SAT registration and costs and www.actstudent.org for ACT registration and costs.
Students are strongly encouraged to become involved in one of the co-curricular activities organized in the high school. These activities include; Young Leaders, Model United Nations, Math Olympiad, Spanish Club, Yearbook, Community Service Club, Global Initiatives Network (GIN), National Honor Society (NHS), Environmental Science Club and Reach Out. We also encourage HS students to start their own clubs.
Transfer students are placed according to their age and previous academic record. Students who transfer to ISPS during their senior year are required to meet the ISPS standards for graduation whenever possible. However, since requirements are different from school to school, grade placement is based on standardized tests and the student’s previous academic record. In the High School, students must have earned certain course credits in order to be placed at the following grade levels. Grade 10 students must have completed five (5) credits. Grade 11 students must have completed twelve (12) credits. Grade 12 students must have completed nineteen (19) credits. The determination of transfer credits will be done in a personal meeting between the transfer student and the HS Counsellor.
Transfer Students (Post CXC) Students transferring into ISPS with a full CXC Secondary School Certificate are exempt from the 2 credit, Physical Education requirement for graduation.